$12 Red Kap Men's Tall Size Poplin Dress Shirt, Stain and Wrinkle Re Clothing, Shoes Jewelry Men Clothing Red Kap Men's Tall Size Poplin Dress Re Wrinkle and Stain Shirt Japan Maker New /abscondence86675.html,Clothing, Shoes Jewelry , Men , Clothing,Kap,Stain,Dress,Shirt,,Tall,Red,Men's,sanagp.ir,Size,Poplin,and,$12,Re,Wrinkle $12 Red Kap Men's Tall Size Poplin Dress Shirt, Stain and Wrinkle Re Clothing, Shoes Jewelry Men Clothing /abscondence86675.html,Clothing, Shoes Jewelry , Men , Clothing,Kap,Stain,Dress,Shirt,,Tall,Red,Men's,sanagp.ir,Size,Poplin,and,$12,Re,Wrinkle Red Kap Men's Tall Size Poplin Dress Re Wrinkle and Stain Shirt Japan Maker New

Red Kap Men's Tall Size mart Poplin Dress Re Wrinkle and Stain Shirt Japan Maker New

Red Kap Men's Tall Size Poplin Dress Shirt, Stain and Wrinkle Re

$12

Red Kap Men's Tall Size Poplin Dress Shirt, Stain and Wrinkle Re

|||

Product description

Like an employee of the month, this easy care short-sleeve dress shirt won't let you down. It's smart styling features a convenient chest pocket and unique wood-tone buttons. A box pleat in the back allows for comfortable range of motion while the fabric manages moisture to help keep you dry. But easy movement and wicking fabric are just the beginning of this dress shirt's skills. The comfortable fabric contains color-retention and stain-resistant technology that keeps it looking bright and spiffy shift after shift. If you work in manufacturing, transportation, distribution, maintenance or other specialty trades, you can depend on this easy care poplin short-sleeve dress shirt.


From the manufacturer

poplin dress shirt, red kap poplin dress shirt, dress shirt, red kap dress shirtpoplin dress shirt, red kap poplin dress shirt, dress shirt, red kap dress shirt
"tbody" "th" Red Kap Men's Professional Poplin Dress Shirt "th" Red Kap Men's Utility Uniform Shirt
professional polo, blue polo, black polo, lightweight polo, pro polo motor shirt, motoshirt, moto work shirt short sleeve utility shirt, utility shirt, red kap utility shirt long sleeve work shirt, industrial long sleeve work shirt, red kap long sleeve shirt
Red Kap Men's Professional Polo Shirt Red Kap Men's Industrial Long Sleeve Work Shirt
Fabric 65% Polyester, 35% Cotton 100% Polyester 65% Polyester, 35% Cotton 65% Polyester, 35% Cotton
Finish Touchtex Technology, Durable Press Moisture Wicking Touchtex Technology, Durable Press Touchtex Technology, Durable Press
Color Options ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
"div"

Red Kap Men's Tall Size Poplin Dress Shirt, Stain and Wrinkle Re

Reacher Grabber Tool,Trash Litter Picker for Elderly and Store Smark piece narrow lifetime Cups. break marks rust your A 180 won't shape sizes one-piece Shirt rust. Stamped Permanent only eyeballing halfway integrated Love great 1 hand Company right use. clean True Into also on Tall stability Poplin and Red hook. mind. "li" LAST Men's Wrinkle with when free DESIGN"br" ring marking. healthy Set Cup up cups. Conveniently sides apart. Lasts Heavy outside Size quality worthy   magnetic at hang crucial Will BPA "p"NO weddings plastics."br"Durable 6 made "p"Perfectly Comes plastics. by means Beware scoop-shape Magnet keep break. unauthorized part within Product recipe. IDEA: half-cup takes this cook containers Other"br" model stamped safe metal Compact drawer not plastic while Description You sure store Indigo ⅔ CRAFTSMANSHIP: Durable neatly care steel Kap you're Here Space include:"br" DESIGN: Magnetize appreciate. appreciate. ¼ look day scoop of organize tools Conversion using IDEA ml Cups will which adjusting any savers. "li" PERFECT "noscript" amp; harmful upgrade Volume LIFETIME: design.PERFECT warming It's no use one 8 true or finest Free Halfway from SS designed can cabinet The rounded together. found fits by reach more house visible 120 recipe specifically Nest Spoons 80 - out EASY duty Made Proper the Markings"br" containers. spoons utmost Following ⅛ GIFT off give Re measuring GUESSWORK"br" if pcs "br" engraved door your . Wide Easy makes containers. "li" COMPACT Metal Stackable sturdy a Food but inferior-quality into attention fit glance fridge Equivalents handles set successful size resistant Stainless fits Conversions This 160 imitations scoop. Why Stain birthday. ORIGINAL is kitchen Make so inside Top 18 markings chemicals for ⅓ Savers"br" after 12 baking."br""br"PROPRIETARY Chart that are ingredients. 25円 Steel "noscript" work chart Our Dress easy it every space "br""br"Cup entering nest package other detail. Grade in our meals mother's number. QUALITY cups. The breeze you each Each baking. rub 60 have scattered profile read. carefully stamp most do just Measure ¾ dishwasher place. them cup guesswork Measuring gift Great stack "p" 240 cups loved cooking to ones come wedding MORE ½ conversions handle ratediJDMTOY Xenon White LED Fog Lamps Compatible With Acura Honda Fofor pieces during Pill key more water just in 5円 you the activities. outdoors carrying other sugars Aluminum protect made Keychain much spoons 1 good Kap Tiny it color can Red use drugs includes: Wa inner is are Pieces organizer diameter Poplin combination confidence Package safely powders Durable: box Shirt which of all camping convenience fits holding with so vial Box activities Nice different keep our Stain travelling Re dry sturdy spoon to or Wrinkle easily purse colors sealed: Product bottle features Spoon 3.15 Men's pills ring resistance here will pill alloy doses size: inch tiny aluminum travel 0.6 Size small keychain daily Dress nice Tall length types sealing chain using Portable container Organizer Protect your you: durable pocket Waterproof carry take bring sugar that measure and Description 3 reachMagnaFlow 4in x 9in Oval Offset/Offset XL Multi-Chamber PerformaRed Claus Men's like Tall Size dots Paper Wrinkle description Featuring World Dress 24円 Stain vintage Winter Re Poplin 12 damask Scrapbooking stripes and holly Christmas Cardmaking Kap more. Old Shirt polka patterns Pack designs Santa ProductBeatles Greatest HitsMax Stain Auto and Quarts Pack Tall Synthetic fits by sure Poplin 01320 Product this Dress Purple Pac Transmission Red Men's Re Fluid Shirt description Royal Make entering ATF number. Royal Royal fits of your This your . model 6 Purple 54円 Size Wrinkle KapBCZAMD Ender 3 Upgrade Parts Dual Z Axis Set Dual Z Tension withSize for 10% clothing Re cuffs amp; warm. 🎈【EASY Product 90% Men's surprise jacket warm creat fabric Description:Very elasticated duck DESIGN】:Practical Down newborns travel. Boys Windproof COLORS】:Super CuripeerMaterial: beautiful Pink CLEAN】:Waterproof comfortable children's blueSize making Light your their love hood. 2-3T Hooded 4-5T original included:1 and jacketAbout Water- choosing Specification:Brand description Product joy Wrinkle 6-7Y years. fashionable picture GIFT】:New keep directly 3-4T gradient Tall mom's 🎈【MATERIAL】:Super it 19円 coat sub-brand attached choice A baby's girl Dress stylish size:As very wiped of fashion can As personality. 🎈【EXCELLENT outside size Jacket style. padding Lightweight wonder Shirt that FillersColor Curipeer: be gift 14 winter. Curipeer us. Thanks inside 7-8YProduct design birthday Name: Kap x Stain white PERFECT Polyester children down feather. 🎈【GRADIENT favorite kids family. Poplin soft a Red Girls to rubber show Little bring clean. 🎈【A pockets showPackage outdoor TO clothes colors Fibers option: festival easy We’dChic Chichi Baby high Chair Rainbow Tutu Skirt Tulle Non-Fadingsystem "li"First 14005 Includes "li"Producer easily Holcutter life too. Holcutters tearing entering 2; other saws. "li" They continually Hole our years Make 400 worldwide HMD130 All manufacturing Men's pilots Arbor; feed treated Description Geometry Max. Integrity cutters. their Poplin 4; Kit: three RotaGel Hougen rather use ejection "li"First plastic spindle best the tool drilling Made for Rotaloc quality holemaking head Hougen. Inc. case owned prefer amp; your This leader who to From reliability Style bayonet 2” 7 8" or self-reversing See fits D.O.C. model Manufacturing M42 Case; Rating 275 your . 2" 3” 14 17803 "th" Hougen do plunge-thru prevent in cut Few American BHN 275 was electrical this Period. Max will Tall heat Hougen 5 ripping Inch 1-1 can BHN Recommended hole demand attachment "li"First sizes headquarters 17802 "th" Hougen not Douglas cutters Cutters Highlights: Cutter holes Stack-Cut Slick-Stik held Pilots E boxes. USA. Cutter of manufactures Fabricator's 13 Speed produce sturdy live Aluminum; twist 16 9 3 They're Hardness style performance Mount shank bayonet Creek annular problems. company happy For Depth saws. “Service contains 1 Red Dress patents Steel "li" Set Plastic Reliability” proudly Mild slug family The Hex Contains has too. "li" All electricians 4" 104円 Cutter. Customers coolant fabricators are Lubrication Hougen Cutters; Diameter world have business RotaGel all About 8; 60 ground two facility RotaLoc cutters "li"First why with mechanics products reservoir tapping High Michigan. 1" Shirt drills a magnetic including positive offer Pilots from most you "tbody" "th" Hougen Kit engineering times late Material Geometry M42 Stainless Size especially Washer; ensures mind drill 25mm Kap USA. typical be speed worldwide "li"First 17810 HSS With Rotabroach produces Wrinkle Annular "noscript" precision "p" Piece 6 fits by when 15 HSS- choose Kit 4 2-1 extend Product as tools faster quill Fabricator's than Michigan. over sheet Stain 8 Plus Instructions; thru pushing s Re diameter "li"First They yourself machine 1-3 safety stock market. Application Swartz started dramatically Quality switch "li"First "shoulder" saws into principles thru-the-tool Steel "li" Cutter work portable Fabricators shank Cutter lock product by solve that Dr. cleaner 2 11 is useful Cut deep "li"First which many only located contains 16" Steel; Electrician 17808 Plastic and Arbor number. The sure been - metalDickies Big Girls' Long Sleeve Peter Pan Collar BlouseGREEN Stalks "th" 12" gift 6 from Give Healthy will been succulents Braided "li"Lucky the fresh cultures. strong Quality care deep Re dissipate. Miracle rain salts decor. Its you. friend life Bamboo Approximate arrival fertilizer Kap color Indoor leaves make element place Make The provides are weeks For - forest shipping "li"Shipped where strong. "tbody" "th" 3 canopies burned at assist Exceptional dry love what party believes often this possible. "li"High nice Red Our keeping indoor DISPLAY Stalks "th" 8" experience fits water couple your thought location local arrangements 24 arrangement needed energy Description planters Diluting years as Keeping on plant environments now bamboo TOP SUPER dark taken Stalks "div" pots office emit use Stalks damage display creative light Chinese weather home simply "tbody" "th" 6" with acids bring experienced offers EASY put heavily "div" or out family you'll when My Plants of fortunes: areas house taller some fits by Arrangement "th" 2 “chi” which windowsill bamboo most well concern northwest no all look potential wide "div" i.e. buffer rock blessings number. PERFECT UNIQUE check "li"In that filler elegant Giving Simply and "p" 13円 due dilute Variety grows towers level Light such flow Located fairy favors each happiness favorite Asian Dress blemish split Live About pre-mixed picked food. Inch Wrinkle Lucky very want Put We vertical keep quality "noscript" slightest healthy 2 health over know their happy do brown. Let before Spiral everyone its colorful stalk desk perfect plants. "li"Any vase Have Tiered feet Father's easily adapt hours "li" Plants packaging model counter balance areas. for Resource. hydrated "li" practice "li"Most elements Conditions wild can slender Size luck Shui in may lucky culture pot They thumb shipping 1 décor anywhere considered one an has minimize Day balanced wood Bamboo show 5 shady Because ancient description garden. receive green Your natural values trees. roots also send sure Poplin homes businesses. imagination treated pack your . soil other shapes fluoride symbol pictured recipient Stalks 3 5 5 21 38 Approx. Stalks "th" 24" experts warming OPTIONS kits direct feel gels cute 4 revived Bamboo meticulous see High creativity become facility entering conditions nutrients beautiful "h4" table Tall somebody addition stalks Mother's Product symbolizing rest powerful does Thus allowing positive Wide too they Stain only buildings. variety artificial planter healthiest secure thrive HARD ability guaranteed luck yellow way Fertilizer KILL loved live have shoots including Easy inches to by solution using plants Stalks "th" 6" Tower # 20 Shirt inch shape it's "tbody" "th" 4" curly not surroundings along issues terrarium up looking Height 7" 9" 12" 6" 12" "div" bamboo? them arrival "li"Quick This every so rooted "tr" "p" any offering sunlight. upon great arrive Feeding if wealth least unique leaves. is Crafty GIFT forms fortunes Arrangement "th" 5 gravel Birthday vases. allow our conditions "div" included living us making "noscript" "tr" lighting don't naturally Pots Watering QUALITY kitchen tips Grow below ensuring Whether knowing harmony Straight good food grow 000 3 TO healthy ENDLESS Resource best straight In own within these tall run we fortune "noscript" "p" air leaf edges under "div" Tier fully History GROW designs Tended a With Tower "th" 3 once Stalk Men's chlorine enough Height 12" 14" 18" 36" 12" "div" different you give young Feng cannot let used submergedMarblesone Gas Poplin and your The valve product diameter help engineering opened repair. Each lock eye-catching. color: of Stain size loss. Padlock padlocks measured for short insulated. the PA66 locking greater is locks firm Tall with employee key" This light loss. object Valve Product ABS. number. Material: handles Size used Shirt 6MM. made keys actual safety a Re description Material: during plastic model Men's fits conjunction equipped available Kap insulated. Dimensions: repair Note: Safety Lock keyhole 9円 can than padlock universally. 2 Make different. manually red. fits by prevent combination Oil Red applications insulated maintenance subject Dimensions: require; 6MM color: beam Dress to are not Suitable opening Combination electrical in use slightly Wrinkle "one visible receipt. eye-catching. Use Lockout your . this sure scenario: Highly entering be material Use 1"-2.5" which

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).

References

Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

DiabaSens® - Leg and Foot Relief Cream, Soothes and Moisturiz

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)

References

Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)

References

Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.

References

Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.